Foundry Technology | Terms & Phrases | Waupaca Foundry

Terms & Phrases

Terms and Phrases Glossary

Waupaca Foundry offers a brief collection of key casting terms and phrases. For additional resources, reference American Foundry Society's Castingpedia.

Ceramic filter block
Catches slag and dirt before it can enter the mold cavity.


Compacted graphite iron
Has characteristics midway between ductile and gray iron and combines many of the properties of both. Compacted graphite iron provides strength, is good for complicated castings, conducts heat well and has a high damping capacity.


An insert in a mold that is used to create the interior surfaces of a casting


The pattern tooling used to create the core


Cross runner
Carries iron from the down runner to the ingates and risers.


The “smokestack” is actually a furnace that pushes air at supersonic speeds into a base fuel of coke to drive temperatures up to 2900 degrees F. The custom mix of materials in the cupola includes pig iron, recycled iron from our production process, scrap iron and metals specified by our customers.


Down runner
Laps the bottom of the pour cup and carries iron down through the filter to the cross runner.


Ductile Iron
The graphite is like a “pillow” and acts as "crack-arresters" to give ductility and toughness superior to all other cast irons. Ductile Iron delivers excellent strength, increased ductility, excellent impact properties, good machinability and has a high modulus of elasticity.


Gray Iron
When it is fractured, it’s surface appears a dull gray color and graphite appears “flaked.” Gray Iron provides excellent castability, good machinability, has wear resistance, has a high damping capacity, conducts heat well, and has superior compressive and tensile strength


The term used for sand that has not been used for a mold. In a metal casting process, this is one of the most cost-effective processes.


Meter the iron into the mold cavity


Isocure® core making
No heat is applied to the corebox and a phenolic urethane resin is added to the sand. A catalyst, in this case amine gas, is introduced into the corebox and purged through the core with superheated air. This process is very fast and cost effective for large cores.  Video:


The wood, metal, foam or plastic shape used to form the cavity in the sand. A pattern may consist of one or many impressions and would normally be mounted on a board or plate complete with a runner system. At Waupaca Foundry, we use metal or plastic patterns because sand is squeezed at high pressures to make the casting molds


Pour cup
The pattern piece where the molten iron enters the mold


Reservoirs in the pattern for replacing iron as it contracts during solidification


Shell core making
Sand is pre-coated with a resin and poured into a pre-heated corebox. In this case, there is no catalyst and the surface is heated until it forms a thin, hard shell. The sand on the inside of the core is uncured and can actually be poured out and reused. This process is ideal for slightweight castings.


The by-product of smelting ore and are generally used as a waste removal mechanism in metal smelting


Allow gases that form in the pattern to escape from the mold so they are not trapped in the casting


Vertical molding
The process used at Waupaca Foundry. In this method, molten metal is poured into the mold in a vertical position. Video:


Warmbox coremaking
Furan resin is added to the sand and the catalyst is heat. Cores are baked in a heated box to 450 degrees until the outside of the core hardens. The core continues cooling outside of the hot box. This process is good for cores that have thin sections.